King Institute RSS Feed Tue, 09 Sep 2014 15:33:00 PDT Recent News and Featured Documents from the Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute This Month in the Movement: The Little Rock Nine Brown v. Board of Education declared segregation in public school illegal, and two years after the Little Rock school board unanimously approved a plan to integrate the city's schools.

Segregationist groups threatened to protest the integration as well as physically block the students from entering the school. On 4 September 1957, Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus sided with the segregationists and deployed the Arkansas National Guard to Little Rock to prevent the nine students from attending the first day of class.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower held a meeting with Faubus during which he strongly discouraged further disobedience against the Supreme Court's ruling. Following the unsuccessful discussions, Eisenhower federalized the Arkansas National Guard and sent a division of the United States Army to Little Rock on 24 September. With an Army escort, the nine students entered the school and began classes at the end of September.

The Little Rock Nine faced continued harassment throughout their respective tenures at Little Rock Central High School, and in the summer of 1958, Governor Faubus closed the city's public high schools with a plan to lease the buildings out to become segregated private schools. His plan did not materialize, but resulted in a year of closed schools. In 1959, the school board reopened the city's high schools and began classes on 12 August 1959. That year, Ernest Green became the first African American student to graduate from Central High School.

To read more about the Little Rock School Desegregation, visit our website here.]]>
Tue, 09 Sep 2014 17:15 PDT
This Month in the Movement: The Voting Rights Act of 1965
Despite the gains in human rights achieved through the Civil Rights Act of 1964, President Johnson recognized the Act's shortcomings in protecting voting rights, and quickly began advocating for a new bill to address the issue. In January 1965, King and SCLC joined with several other civil rights organizations to implement a direct action campaign in Selma, Alabama aimed at securing voting rights.

The demonstrations were met with increasingly violent police resistance that prompted organizers to lead a protest march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama on 7 March 1965. The marchers were stopped by police outside of Selma where they were assaulted with tear gas and beaten with clubs. National coverage of the incident focused national attention on the issue of voting rights in the South, and spurred a larger march to Montgomery two days later.

Following the 7 March attack, Johnson renewed his campaign for a voting rights act, and the initial bill was introduced on 17 March 1965. The bill passed the Senate with a 77-19 vote and cleared the House of Representatives by a 333-85 vote. After a committee reconciled changes to the bill from the Senate and House, Johnson signed the bill into law. The signing was attended by King and other civil rights leaders.

For more on the Voting Rights Act of 1965, please visit the King Encyclopedia here.

To read more about the Selma to Montgomery March, click here.]]>
Tue, 09 Sep 2014 17:15 PDT
This Month in the Movement: The Civil Rights Act of 1964
Though it was the Kennedy Administration's sympathetic ear that provided momentum for federal action in 1963, congress had precedent to pull from with the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first legislation addressing the rights of African Americans since Reconstruction. The Act of 1957 established the Civil Rights division of the Justice Department and the U.S. Civil Rights Commission for investigative purposes. However, the Act fell short of being comprehensive and ignited a prolonged campaign for further legislation by various civil rights organizations and individuals such as A. Philip Randolph and Martin Luther King, Jr.

By 1963 racial strife mounted in plain view of both the national and international consciousness. President John F. Kennedy revealed his intention to pursue legislative action in his civil rights speech of 11 June 1963, following the notable Birmingham campaign in which students and children endured attacks by police dogs and high pressure fire hoses. Calling for comprehensive legislation the president argued that "this nation, for all its hopes and all its boasts, will not be fully free until all its citizens are free." The Administration was under relentless pressure from civil rights organizations and King, who in an article published after the March on Washington reiterated that African Americans would not be content with tokenism.

King's advocacy was unwavering following Kennedy's assassination in November of 1963, he pressed President Johnson to continue Kennedy's civil rights legacy arguing the human dignity of African Americans would not be denied.

Though ensnared by a filibuster from southern senators, the bill finally passed and was signed into law on 2 July 1964 with King and other civil rights leaders present for its historical enactment. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin; and ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in public accommodations. For more on the Civil Rights Act of 1964 please visit our encyclopedia entry here.]]>
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 17:28 PDT
Clayborne Carson on the passing of Dr. Vincent Harding ]]> Tue, 20 May 2014 16:02 PDT Mabel Williams, civil rights activist, dead at 82. Thu, 01 May 2014 20:56 PDT This Month in the Movement: The Children’s Crusade
Well aware that the demonstrations were losing critical national attention, campaign organizers, including King, sought a new tactic to reignite the protests and refocus the national spotlight on Birmingham. During deliberations, James Bevel suggested permitting schoolchildren to conduct demonstrations. After agreement from the other leaders, the Children's Crusade commenced.

On May 2, over one thousand children skipped school to participate in a march from Sixth Street Baptist Church to Birmingham's downtown. Before they reached their destination, Birmingham police arrested the children en masse. The following day, several hundred students began another march. Police commissioner Bull Conner gave the order to break up the demonstration with force, and local police and firefighters set upon the children with clubs, fire hoses, and dogs.

Photographs of the police brutality grabbed media attention and brought national condemnation upon Birmingham officials. The United States Department of Justice quickly intervened, and on May 10 the Southern Christian Leadership Conference ended the Birmingham Campaign when an agreement was reached to desegregate Birmingham's stores and release the jailed protestors.

To read more about the Children's Crusade, visit the King Encyclopedia here.

To learn more about the Birmingham Campaign, click here.]]>
Thu, 01 May 2014 18:29 PDT
Paul Robeson, Jr., Civil Rights Activist and Author, Dead at 86. Wed, 30 Apr 2014 23:32 PDT This Month in the Movement: Fiftieth Anniversary of the March on Frankfort
The march was coordinated by members of the Allied Organization for Civil Rights (AOCR); Frank Stanley, Jr., editor of The Louisville Defender; Olof Anderson, Synod Executive of the Presbyterian Church; and Georgia Davis Powers, who later became the first African American and the first woman to be elected to the Kentucky State Senate in 1967. Many national prominent figures were also in attendance, including Ralph Abernathy, Jackie Robinson and the folk singers Peter, Paul and Mary. When the mass of people arrived at the capitol they sang songs and many people gave speeches, including King.

Later that day march organizers and civil rights leaders met with Kentucky Governor Edward T. Breathitt to discuss the bill. He assured them that he would work very hard to have the civil rights bill passed, but warned them that he was new to office and was not sure how much power and respect he had. Despite the efforts of Governor Breathitt and civil rights leader, the bill was not passed in in 1964. The march became a catalyst for a future bill that would be passed in 1966. On 27 January 1966 Governor Breathitt signed the Kentucky Civil Rights bill, making Kentucky the first state south of the Mason-Dixon line to have a state Civil Rights Act.

This year marks the 50th anniversary of the March on Frankfort.

Explore the links below and discover photographs, oral history interviews and more information related to the March on Frankfort:

1. University of Louisville Libraries Blog

2. Kentucky Historical Society Oral History Project Governor Breathitt speaks about the first time he met King and his thoughts on the march.

3.Georgia Davis Powers speaks on the March on Frankfort ]]>
Tue, 04 Mar 2014 18:04 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Little Rock School Desegregation
The courageous actions of the students came three years after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. The unsuccessful attempt by the students to integrate Central High on 4 September precipitated NAACP lawyers filing a federal court injunction to prevent the governor from blocking the students' entry. The lawyers won the injunction and on 23 September 1957, with the help of police escorts, the students successfully entered the school through a side entrance. The mob violence outside did not cease and continued to escalate as the hours passed, so soon after the students had entered they were rushed home out of fear for their safety.

Throughout the situation King supported the students and was an advocate for them. King explained to President Eisenhower in a telegram that the government must stand against the injustice occurring at Central High. As the story of the students struggle gained more attention, Eisenhower realized that the incident was becoming an international embarrassment. Eisenhower ordered troops from the Army's 101st Airborne Division and the Arkansas National Guard to protect the students for the remainder of the school year.

At the end of the year, Ernest Green, one of the "Little Rock Nine," became the first African American to graduate from Central High School. Before schools opened in the fall of 1958, Governor Faubus closed all four of Little Rock's public schools rather than proceeding with desegregation, but a December 1959 Supreme Court ruling that the school board must reopen the schools and resume the process of desegregating the city schools spoiled his efforts.

To read more about the Little Rock School Desegregation, visit the entry in the King Encyclopedia here.]]>
Fri, 28 Feb 2014 21:54 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Andrew Young
In 1960, Young accepted an administrative position at the Citizenship Education Program (CEP) of Highlander Folk School in Tennessee. When the scool closed the following year, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) assumed responsibility for the program, and Young moved to Atlanta to direct the CEP from SCLC headquarters.

King promoted Young to executive director of SCLC in 1964, and Young proved integral in the planning and implementation of direct action campaigns in St. Augustine, Florida; Selma, Alabama; and Chicago.

Young left SCLC in 1970 to run for Congress, making a successful bid in 1972. He remained in Congress until President Carter appointed him ambassador to the United Nations. Following his time with the United Nations, Young served as mayor of Atlanta for eight years.

To read more about Andrew Young, visit his entry in the King Encyclopedia here.]]>
Thu, 27 Feb 2014 17:07 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Julian Bond
Julian was born in Tennessee in 1940 to Horace Mann Bond, the first African-American president of Lincoln University. Though a Morehouse man, Bond's political awakening began during the sit-in movement of 1960 in Greensboro, North Carolina, and came into full fruition as he took part in the creation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in Raleigh, North Carolina. Shortly after its formation, Bond was hired as SNCC's communications director.

The evolution of Bond's movement ideology took further shape as a student in a Morehouse philosophy course co-taught by Martin Luther King, Jr., and Dr. Samuel Williams in the Autumn of 1961. After taking the course, Bond dropped out of Morehouse to work full time for SNCC and the movement. The mutual respect between Bond and King grew and in the mid 1960's King was co-plaintiff in Bond's appeal to the United States Supreme Court for his rightfully elected seat with the Georgia House of Representatives, which was stripped from him do to his anti-Vietnam War views. From 1965 to 1986 he served in the Georgia House and six terms in the Georgia Senate.

Bond continues to actively disseminate the legacy of the movement through published writings and lectures. For more on Julian Bond please visit our encyclopedia entry here. You may also visit this NAACP page here. ]]>
Wed, 26 Feb 2014 17:51 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Mahalia Jackson
Born in New Orleans in 1911, Jackson was raised in a devout Baptist family and grew up singing in choirs. At the age of sixteen, she moved to Chicago and continued to sing in storefront churches and toured with a gospel quintet. By the time Ralph Abernathy and King met Jackson in 1956 at the National Baptist Convention, she had already sold eight million copies of her album, become an international celebrity, performed sold-out shows at Carnegie Hall and hosted her own radio and television shows in Chicago. Her inspiring voice and passion made her the perfect person for King to ask to perform in Montgomery for the foot soldiers of the newly successful bus boycott. After her performance, she continued to appear with King, singing before his speeches and for Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) fundraisers.

On 28 August 1963 at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, before King took the podium to give his speech, Jackson performed “I Been ‘Buked and I Been Scorned.” King later wrote, “When I got up to speak, I was already happy. I couldn’t help preaching. Millions of people all over this country have said it was my greatest hour. I do not know, but if it was, you, more than any single person helped to make it so” (King, 10 January 1964).

To read more about Mahalia Jackson and how she honored King after his assassination, visit her page in the King Encyclopedia here. ]]>
Tue, 25 Feb 2014 15:51 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Thurgood Marshall
Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Marshall attended Howard University Law School. After graduating in 1933, he took a position in the national office of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) before assuming the directorship of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund in 1940.

Marshall successfully argued numerous court cases challenging segregation, including the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education case, which deemed the concept of "separate but equal" unconstitutional. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the Second Circuit Court of Appeals. He served as solicitor general from 1965 to 1967, when he was confirmed to the Supreme Court as the country's first African American Supreme Court justice.

To read more about Thurgood Marshall, visit his page in the King Encyclopedia here.]]>
Mon, 24 Feb 2014 16:43 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Albany Movement
Albany police chief Laurie Pritchett responded to the demonstrations with mass arrests and without public brutality. These arrests depleted the number of demonstrators and dampened the momentum of the movement. In December, Albany Movement president, W. G. Anderson, contacted King. Anderson invited King to Albany in hopes that King's presence and the organizational experience of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) would rejuvenate the movement.

Throughout his involvement in the Albany Movement, King was arrested three times. Despite the publicity from these arrests, along with the continued mass arrests of hundreds of demonstrators, Albany city officials refused to negotiate. King effectively ended his involvement in Albany in August 1962, with the primary objectives of the movement still unmet. The lessons learned in Albany helped shape the planning of future civil rights campaigns. King later recalled that "what we learned from our mistakes in Albany helped our later campaigns in other cities to be more effective."

To learn more about the Albany Movement, visit the King Encyclopedia here.]]>
Mon, 24 Feb 2014 16:40 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: The Children’s Crusade
James Bevel of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference suggested the use of the youth to reinvigorate the ebb of the Birmingham Campaign, arguing they had less to lose than adults who were reluctant to participate in demonstrations for fear of losing their jobs. Though Martin Luther king, Jr. was at first skeptical of the idea, the press coverage of "Bull" Connor's police dogs and fire hoses being used against defenseless children spurred national conversation, and eventually helped lead to the Civil Rights legislation of 1964.

For more on the Children's Crusade please read our encyclopedia entry here.

For some personal recollections of the Campaign please see here. ]]>
Fri, 21 Feb 2014 17:03 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Daisy Bates
Growing up in a small town in Arkansas, Bates's aversion to discrimination began at am early age, recalling in her autobiography, The Long Shadow of Little Rock, an incident when a local butcher informed her that she would need to wait until he had served all of the white patrons before he would accommodate her (Bates, 8). At the age of fifteen she met her future husband and they founded the Arkansas State Press. She was able to use this platform as a way to share her ideas about ways to improve the social and economic conditions of blacks throughout Arkansas. In 1952, she assumed the position of president of the Arkansas chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), which gave her the opportunity to work with and advise the black students who had volunteered to desegregate Central High School.

King reached out to Bates many times during the Little Rock crisis, reassuring her that she had a large amount of support and that she was,"a woman whom everyone KNOWS has been, and still is in the thick of the battle from the very beginning, never faltering, never tiring." In May 1958 King stayed with the Bates when he spoke at the Arkansas AM&N College commencement, and soon afterward invited her to be the Women’s Day speaker at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church later that year in October. During the same year, Bates was elected to the executive committee of King’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).

Bates was the only woman to speak at the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

To learn more about the Daisy Bates, visit the King Encyclopedia here.]]>
Thu, 20 Feb 2014 17:51 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: The Freedom Rides
Harnessing the media, the freedom riders were able to use the press to reveal the realities of racial injustice still institutionalized in inter-state travel. Unlike the Freedom Rides initially conducted by CORE and the Fellowship of Reconciliation in 1947, the students in 1961 were able to engage and capture national and international attention, forcing the hand of the Kennedy Administration and securing an Interstate Commerce Commission ban on segregation in all facilities under their jurisdiction. Though King supported the riders he himself did not participate in any of the rides; the presence of the student movement took a more apparent hold within the struggle. For more on the Freedom Rides of 1961 please visit our encyclopedia entry here ]]>
Tue, 18 Feb 2014 16:39 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Highlander Folk School
In 1932, Myles Horton founded the Highlander Folk School in Monteagle, Tennessee, which focused on labor and adult education. By the 1950s, the focus of the school had shifted to grassroots education, social justice and race relations. Many southern civil rights activists participated in leadership training at the school, including Marion Barry, Diane Nash, James Bevel and Rosa Parks, who attended a 1955 workshop at Highlander four months before refusing to give up her bus seat, an act which ignited the Montgomery bus boycott. Highlander also developed a citizenship program that taught African Americans their rights as citizens while promoting basic literacy skills. In 1957, King joined the staff during their 25th anniversary celebration and praised Highlander for its “noble purpose and creative work,” and for its contribution to the South of “some of its most responsible leaders in this great period of transition”.

The school was closed in 1961 when the Tennessee government revoked its charter on falsified charges that the school was being run for profit and that it did not fulfill its nonprofit requirements. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) felt that the citizenship program filled an important void and chose to take over the program that same year. Under the leadership of SCLC and the supervision of Septima P. Clark, Dorothy Cotton, and Andrew Young, the schools eventually trained approximately 100,000 adults.

In August 1961 Horton opened another school in Knoxville, Tennessee called the Highlander Research and Education Center.

To read more about Highlander Folk School and to discover how a photo of King at Highlander's 25th anniversary was used as propaganda against him, visit this King Encyclopedia entry here. ]]>
Fri, 14 Feb 2014 17:13 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: John Lewis
Following his involvement in the Nashville sit-ins in early 1960, Lewis attended a meeting of student activists that April which resulted in the formation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The following year, Lewis participated in the Freedom Rides and was elected to the board of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1962. His leadership in the movement was further demonstrated when he delivered one of the keynote addresses at the March on Washington in 1963.

Lewis continued to lead civil rights campaigns through the 1960s and 1970s, including an appointment by President Jimmy Carter in 1977 to direct ACTION, a federal volunteer agency. In 1986, Lewis was elected to Congress as a Representative from Georgia's 5th district, an office he still holds.

To read more about John Lewis, visit his King Encyclopedia entry here. ]]>
Thu, 13 Feb 2014 17:26 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Coretta Scott King
Born 27 April 1927 near Marion, Alabama, Coretta found her first passion in the pursuit of music. Coretta and King were married in 1953 and though her life was attenuated to the role of a minister's wife and activist, she earned her B.A. in music in 1954. In the last decades of her life her direct activism found renewed voice through the protest of Apartheid in South Africa, the organization of a commemorative March on Washington in 1983, and the advocation for a national holiday in honor of her husband. Coretta's commitment to the dissemination of King's legacy and the movement continues to inform history even after her death through the establishment of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta and the Martin Luther King Papers Project here at Stanford. For more on Coretta Scott King click here ]]>
Wed, 12 Feb 2014 18:37 PDT
In Honor of Black History Month: Septima Poinsette Clark “the Mother of the Movement”
Upon graduating secondary school and passing the teacher's exam in 1916, age the age of eighteen, Clark began teaching at a black school in South Carolina. During her career, she used summer breaks as times to continue her education. In 1937, Clark studied under W. E. B. Du Bois at Atlanta University before eventually earning her BA (1942) from Benedict College in Columbia, and her MA (1946) from Virginia’s Hampton Institute. She also participated in a class action lawsuit filed by the NAACP (National Council for the Advancement of Colored People) that led to pay equity for black and white teachers in South Carolina. In 1956, after Clark refused to resign from NAACP, her teaching contract was terminated. She was immediately hired by a grassroots education center where she has taught workshops during the summers. Rosa Parks even participated in one of her workshops just months before she helped launch the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

When the state of Tennessee forced the grassroots education center to close in 1961, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) established the Citizenship Education Program (CEP), modeled on Clark’s citizenship workshops. Shortly after, Clark began working for the SCLC conducting teacher training and developing curricula. A year after Clark retired in 1970,the governor of South Carolina reinstated her teacher’s pension after declaring that she had been unjustly terminated in 1956. She was given a Living Legacy Award by President Jimmy Carter in 1979 and published her second memoir, Ready from Within, in 1986.

To read more about Septima Poinsette Clark, check out her entry in the King Encyclopedia here ]]>
Tue, 11 Feb 2014 16:58 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Fred L. Shuttlesworth
Shuttlesworth moved to Birmingham in 1953 to serve as minister of Bethel Baptist Church, and in 1955 joined the local chapter of the NAACP. The following year, circuit judge Walter B. Jones banned the NAACP from any activity in the state of Alabama. In response, Shuttlesworth co-founded the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMRH) and promptly began organizing nonviolent demonstrations against the institutionalized racism in Birmingham.

Following encouragement from Shuttlesworth to bring an organized protest campaign to Birmingham, leaders from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) met with ACMHR in 1963 and mapped out a strategy for what would become the Birmingham Campaign. Shuttlesworth released the "Birmingham Manifesto" explaining the decision to protest, and on 6 April 1963 he led the campaign's first march.

Throughout his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement, Shuttlesworth led by example and repeatedly put his life on the line for the sake of the nonviolent movement. He survived numerous attempts on his life and continued to fight for equality and social justice for the rest of his life. In 2008 the airport in Birmingham was renamed in his honor.

To read more about Fred L. Shuttlesworth, check out his entry in the King Encyclopedia here ]]>
Mon, 10 Feb 2014 16:59 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Ella Baker
Born 13 December 1903 in Norfolk, Virginia and raised on the land in which her grandparents were enslaved, Baker's passion for social justice galvanized at an early age. She challenged the tradition of top-down leadership that defined King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and felt that sustained and cohesive social justice could only be obtained through grass-roots mobilization. Ella worked with the NAACP in New York and was influential in the organization of the Crusade for Citizenship program of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. However, after the 1960 Greensboro, North Carolina sit-in movement she left SCLC to advise the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee whose ethos she identified more closely with. Ella remained an active civil rights organizer until her death in 1986. For more on Ella Baker visit the King Institute's Encyclopedia here.]]>
Fri, 07 Feb 2014 18:06 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: The Civil Rights Act of 1964
On 19 June 1963 Kennedy introduced the civil rights legislation to Congress. Following Kennedy's assassination in November 1963, both King and the newly inaugurated President Lyndon B. Johnson still pressed for the passage of the bill. The bill official passed the House of Representatives in mid-February 1964, making this month the fiftieth anniversary. Once in the Senate, the bill was delayed from progressing due to a filibuster that lasted 75 days. Finally, on 2 July 1962, Johnson signed the new Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law with King and other civil rights leaders present.

To learn more about the Civil Rights Act of 1964 visit the King Encyclopedia here.]]>
Thu, 06 Feb 2014 17:32 PDT
Celebrating Black History Month: Rosa Parks
On 1 December 1955, Parks boarded a city bus for her commute home and took a seat in the section designated for African American passengers. As the bus continued to fill up with passengers along its route, the driver moved the sign dictating the line of segregation back several rows to provide more seats for white passengers and told Parks to give up her seat. Parks refused, and was promptly arrested.

That evening, the local chapter of the NAACP began planning for a boycott of Montgomery's city buses. On 5 December 1955, the day of Parks's trial, the African American community of Montgomery staged a city-wide bus boycott in protest of her arrest. The success of the boycott prompted organizers to push for its extension to what would become the 13-month Montgomery Bus Boycott.

Throughout the boycott, Parks found herself the target of persistent discrimination. Both she and her husband were fired from their jobs, and eventually moved to Detroit, Michigan to pursue broader job prospects. In Detroit, she was hired as a secretary in the office of U.S. Representative John Conyers, where she continued to work until her retirement. In 1996, Parks was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

For more on Rosa Parks, visit her entry in the King Encyclopedia here. Click here to visit the website of the Rosa & Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development. ]]>
Tue, 04 Feb 2014 19:37 PDT